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This page includes resources we believe are relevant to the theme of culturally-justified violence. We have included both VNC-led publications as well as those by allies. If you have a resource you think should be on this page, please contact info@violenceisnotourculture.org

Memidanakan Seksualitas: Hukum Zina sebagai Kekerasan terhadap Perempuan dalam Konteks Islam

March, 2010
Ziba Mir Hosseini

Dalam tradisi hukum Islam, semua hubungan seksual di luar nikah yang sah dipandang sebagai suatu kejahatan. Kategori utama dari kejahatan ini adalah zina, yang didefinisikan sebagai hubungan seksual terlarang antara laki-laki dan perempuan. Pada akhir abad ke-20, kebangkitan Islam sebagai kekuatan politik dan spiritual memicu dihidupkannya kembali hukum zina dan pembuatan berbagai ketentuan atas pelanggaran-pelanggaran baru yang mempidanakan tindakan seksual konsensual dan memberikan wewenang bagi terjadinya kekerasan terhadap perempuan. Para aktivis telah berkampanye untuk menolak ketentuan tersebut atas dasar hak asasi manusia (HAM). Dalam makalah ini, saya menunjukkan bagaimana upaya menentang hukum zina dan kriminalisasi hubungan seksual konsensual dapat dilakukan dari dalam tradisi hukum Islam sendiri. Sebenarnya, pendekatan berdasar pemikiran Islam, feminisme dan HAM bisa saling menguatkan, terutama berkenaan dengan kampanye yang lebih efektif dalam merespon kebangkitan hukum zina. Dengan menelusuri kesalingterkaitan (intersection) antara agama, budaya dan hukum yang memberikan legitimasi pada penggunaan kekerasan dalam berbagai aturan tentang seksualitas, makalah ini bertujuan untuk memberi sumbangan pada pengembangan pendekatan kontekstual dan integratif untuk menghapus hukum zina. Melalui upaya ini, saya berharap bisa memperluas cakupan perdebatan terkait konsep dan strategi Kampanye SKSW.

Criminaliser la sexualité - Les lois relatives à la zina, une violence à l’égard des femmes dans les contextes musulmans

March, 2010
Ziba Mir Hosseini

La tradition juridique islamique traite tout rapport sexuel hors mariage comme un crime. La principale catégorie de crimes de ce type est la zina, qui s’entend de tout rapport sexuel illicite entre un homme et une femme. Á la fin du vingtième siècle, la résurgence de l’islam comme force politique et spirituelle a entraîné la réintroduction des lois relatives à la zina et la création de nouveaux délits qui criminalisent l’activité sexuelle consensuelle et autorisent la violence à l’égard des femmes. Des activistes militent contre ces nouvelles lois pour défendre les droits humains. Dans ce document de synthèse, je montre comment contester également les lois relatives à la zina et la criminalisation de l’activité sexuelle consensuelle, de l’intérieur de la tradition juridique islamique. Loin d’être mutuellement opposées, les approches du féminisme et des perspectives des droits humains qui découlent des études islamiques, peuvent se renforcer mutuellement, en particulier pour lancer une campagne effective contre la réintroduction des lois relatives à la zina. En explorant les intersections de la religion, de la culture et du droit qui légitiment la violence dans la réglementation de la sexualité, l’article vise à contribuer à l’élaboration d’une approche contextuelle et intégrée de l’abolition des lois relatives à la zina. J’espère, ce faisant, élargir le champ du débat sur les concepts et les stratégies de la campagne SKSW .

Violence against disabled, lesbian and sex-working women in Bangladesh, India and Nepal

June, 2012

The count me IN! Research Report on Violence Against Disabled, Lesbian, and Sex-working Women in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal is based on the first ever multi-country research study on violence faced by disabled women, lesbian women, and female sex workers (FSWs) in three countries in South Asia—Bangladesh, India, and Nepal.

Critically absent: Women in internet governance. A policy advocacy toolkit.

April, 2012

Personal and social communication have changed substantially with the use of ICTs, social networks and text messages. ICTs create new scenarios, new ways for people to live and these reflect real-life problems. Issues of security, privacy, and surveillance are now part of the debate around ICT development. Women should assert their rights here too, with determination and without delay.

Activism Under the Radar: Volunteer Health Workers in Iran

May, 2009

Few would disagree that the 1979 Iranian revolution, despite the massive participation of women, rapidly became a catastrophe for women’s legal status and social position. Under the Shah, Iran had a mildly forward-looking family law limiting men’s rights to polygamy and unilateral divorce, and, at least theoretically, basing child custody on the best interests of the child. Within two weeks of the revolution, this legislation was annulled, on the grounds that it was against the shari‘a. The new Islamic Republic introduced retrograde laws that, among other things, valued a woman’s life at half of a man’s, and considered two women witnesses to be the equal of one man. The age of marriage as well as maturity for women was reduced to nine. At the same time, the regime promoted motherhood as the only viable life option for women and dismantled the family planning unit the Shah’s regime had founded. In 1989, concerned about the burgeoning population, the Islamic Republic made a volte face and introduced one of the most successful family planning programs in the developing world. In the process of transmitting health messages, however, these volunteers continuously found ways to redefine their mandate and expand their position in other areas of the public sphere.

A Woman's Struggle: Using Gender Lenses To Understand the Plight Of Women Human Rights Defenders in Kurdish Regions of Turkey

April, 2012

This report explores the hitherto untold experiences of women human rights defenders in East and South East Turkey, a burning issue. As in other situations of violent conflict and gendered and ethnic oppression, women in the Kurdish region of Turkey have been disproportionately affected from curtailed access to education, decent employment, loss of livelihoods. For decades they have experienced military conflict, internal displacement and the attendant social, economic and political strains, which often work to circumscribe women’s lives and render them more vulnerable to gendered control, both by the state and its security forces and their families and communities.

Life on the Margins: A Study on the Minority Women in Pakistan

February, 2012

This study is an attempt to comprehensively understand the situation of minority women in Pakistan, examining their context, their experiences and perspectives. Using both primary and secondary data as well as qualitative and quantitative input, it sketches the national context with regard to minorities and reviews issues of health; water, hygiene and sanitation; socio-economic conditions; education; autonomy; political participation; discriminations such as forced and mediated conversions; law related loopholes and law enforcement concerns and redress option.

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